Heidi N. Haddad, The Hidden Hands of Justice: NGOs, Human Rights, and International Courts (Cambridge University Press, 2018).

Summary
The Hidden Hands of Justice: NGOs, Human Rights, and International Courts is the first comprehensive analysis of non-governmental organization (NGO) participation at international criminal and human rights courts. Drawing on original data, Heidi Nichols Haddad maps and explains the differences in NGO participatory roles, frequency, and impact at three judicial institutions: the European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Human Rights System, and the International Criminal Court. The Hidden Hands of Justice demonstrates that courts can strategically choose to enhance their functionality by allowing NGOs to provide needed information, expertise, and services as well as shame states for non-cooperation. Through participation, NGOs can profoundly shape the character of international human rights justice, but in doing so, may consolidate civil society representation and relinquish their roles as external monitors.

About the Author
Heidi Nichols Haddad is an Associate Professor of Politics at Pomona College in Claremont, California. She is the author of The Hidden Hands of Justice: NGOs, Human Rights, and International Courts (Cambridge University Press, 2018), which comprehensively maps and explains variation in non-governmental organization (NGO) participation across three international courts— the International Criminal Court, the European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Human Rights Commission and Court.

Her research has also explored the dynamics of NGO mission expansion, the role of advocacy groups in pressuring for rape prosecutions at international criminal tribunals, and how and why NGOs act as institution builders to international human rights courts. Her work has been published in Human Rights Review, Journal of Human Rights, and Global Governance