Thomas Biersteker is the Gasteyger Professor of International Security and Conflict Studies and Director of the Programme for the Study of International Governance at the Graduate Institute, Geneva, since 2007. He received his Ph.D. and M.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his B.A. from the University of Chicago. Biersteker served as Director of the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University from 1994 to 2006 and has also taught at Yale University and the University of Southern California. In 2002 he was named a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, New York. Biersteker is the author/editor/co-editor of ten books, including State Sovereignty as Social Construct (1996), The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance (2002), and Targeted Sanctions: The Impacts and Effectiveness of UN Action (2016). His current research focuses on UN targeted sanctions, the emergence of transnational policy networks in global security governance, and the dialectics of world orders. He was the principal developer of SanctionsApp, a tool for iPhone and Android mobile devices created in 2013 to increase access to information and improve the quality of discourse about targeted sanctions at the UN Security Council.